GLOSSARY OF TERMS

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

1

1x1 Rib
Also 2x2 rib knit trim. the width of each rib is the same as the width between each rib. this helps the garment retain its elasticity.

2

2-Way Zipper
A zipper with two zipper pulls so that it can be unzipped from either direction.

4

4-Needle Stitched
Double-needle stitched but with four stitches.

5

50/50
50 percent cotton/50 percent polyester fabric; also referred to as "polycotton".

A

ANSI
The american national standards institute establishes guidelines for safety; styles specifically meant to promote safety and visibility often are held to ansi standards
AQL 
Acceptance quality limit
Abrasion resistance
The ability of a fabric to withstand loss of appearance and function through the destructive action of rubbing.  fabrics labeled as abrasion-resistant are typically highly durable and long lasting.
Accent / novelty yarns
These yarns are very very fine and are not intended to be used by themselves; they are intended to be knit with another yarn and will provide additional color and texture to a finished fabric. they do possibly change the gauge of your fabric, so a swatch is recommended whenever you are going to use an accent yarn to make the necessary adjustment to your needle size. (this definition was kindly provided by karen at red meadow fiber arts)
Acetate/spandex
Stretchy, high sheen knit frequently used in womens outer garments. extremely durable and washable, more so than some plain acetate fabrics
Adhesives 
Are an essential part of the manufacturing process for a variety of apparel applications ranging from applying labels, decorative trim and waterproofing tapes to innovative solutions like stitchless garment construction.
Air mesh
A mesh that has multiple layers to allow air to pass through the fabric.
Airjet yarn
Cotton and polyester garments which provide for a virtually "pill free" look, wash after wash.
All-Weather Microfiber 
100% polyester microfiber with waterproof coating and fully taped seams. 100% waterproof.
Allen Solley placket
A one-piece placket that's hidden after being sewn. this process utilizes the existing fabric for the outside placket face. this is an upscale placket type.
Allover  
An embroidered, printed, or lace fabric with a design covering most of the surface (allover the surface).
American Upland Cotton
Currently representing the bulk of the world crop, american upland fiber runs between 3/4" and 1 1/4". 
Amethyst  
A variable color averaging a mod purple.
Anti-Pill
A treatment applied to garments primarily to resist the formation of little balls on the fabric’s surface due to abrasion during wear.
Anti-Static 
A fabric treatment that does not allow the build-up of static electricity to occur when the fiber or fabric experiences friction or rubbing.
Anti-microbial (anti-bacterial)
Fabric that has either been chemically treated, or produced with a fiber that is inherently hostile to micro-organisms. anti-microbial fabrics are resistant to, or inhibit the growth of organisms that can cause odors or deteriorate the fabric.
Antimicrobial
Finishing process which protects against odor-causing bacteria.
Apparel 
Personal attire; clothing; clothes; garments; fashions; things one wears to cover thy naked body.
Appliqué 
Decoration or trimming cut from one fabric piece and stitched to another to add dimension.
Argyle
A popular design for knitted fabrics.  two or three colors are generally used in a diamond shape arrangement.
Art linen  
Linen.  plain weave.   it is woven with even threads that are especially good for embroidery.   it is very easy to "draw" the yarns for drawn thread work.  comes bleached, or coloured.  has a soft finish.

B

B.O.W.
Bleach optic white a bright white color
Baby Pique 
Very small pique knit. see pique knit.
Back Pleats
Tiny folds in the material that flex during use and allow for more room and comfort.
Back Yoke 
A piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. this allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.
Backing
Backing is the material applied under an embroidery design. backing is typically cut to match the shape of the embrodiderd design. some types of backing can simply be torn away without the use of tools.
Backing Yarn
The yarn which is napped on the inside of a fleece garment, that creates the soft lining of fleece.
Baize
A coarse woolen or cotton fabric napped to imitate felt.
Balaclava
A knit cap for the head and neck [also called, balaclava helmet]
Balbriggan
A knitted cotton fabric used especially for underwear or hosiery.
Baldachin 
A rich embroidered fabric of silk and gold.
Ballistic nylon
A thick, durable, synthetic nylon fabric.
Balloon sleeve 
A type of full sleeve.  it is frequently made of lighter or transparent fabrics.
Banded self collar
A type of collar made of the same material as the shirt. the two basic kinds of this collar are the simulated, made of two pieces, or the true, made of four pieces.
Band  
A close-fitting strip that confines material at the waist, neck, or cuff of clothing
Bar Tacks
A type of reinforcement stitching used in clothing to make sewn products stronger. example: the rivets used on the pockets of jeans
Barathea  
A fabric that has a broken rib weave and a pebbly texture and that is made of silk, worsted, or synthetic fiber or a combination of these. fabric has granular texture achieved by the short broken ribs in the filling direction. it is a rich soft-looking, fine fabric.  used in men's dress ties, cumberbunds.  english in origin and originally made as a mourning cloth.
Basket weave
A variation of the plain weave in which two or more threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look. fabrics have a loose construction and loose appearance resulting in two-tone appearance.
Bast fiber
A strong woody fiber obtained chiefly from the phloem of plants and used especially in cordage, matting, and fabrics.
Bedford cord 
A heavy fabric with a lengthwise ribbed weave, resembles corduroy. wool or worsted but worsted is more popular.  also made in cotton, silk and rayon.
Besom pocket 
Reinforced top seam found on the pockets of golf shirts. this reinforced top seam keeps the pocket in shape and more durable.
Bi-swing back
A rear insert panel, typically used in jackets.  extra material is gathered or folded to allow more freedom of movement in the shoulder area.  sometimes called an "action back."
Bias
Fabric which has been cut on the diagonal.
Binding 
A narrow fabric used to finish raw edges.  in sewing, binding is used as both a noun and a verb to refer to finishing a seam or hem of a garment, usually by rolling or pressing then stitching on an edging or trim.
Birdseye Jacquard
A small geometric pattern with a center dot knit into the fabric.
Birdseye  (bird's eye)  birdseye  (bird's eye)  (1) 
Very soft, light weight, and absorbent. woven with a loosely twisted filling to increase absorbency.  launders very well.  it is also called "diaper cloth" and is used for that purpose as well as very good towelling.  also "novelty" birdseye effects used as summer dress fabrics. (2) worsted. smooth, clear finish.  has small diamond-shaped figures with a dot in the centre of each. pattern suggests the eye of a bird.  fine quality suiting for men and women.
Bister  
A grayish to yellowish brown.
Black wool
L  any wool that is not white, but not necessarily black. stock that is grey or brown in colour is classed as black wool
Blanket Stitch 
A decorative stitch used to finish an unhemmed blanket. the stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket.
Blanket cloth 
Wool, worsted, cotton, blends, synthetics. plain or twill.  soft, raised finish, "nap" obtained by passing the fabric over a series of rollers covered with fine wire or teasels.  heavily napped and fulled on both sides. nap lose and may pill in laundering.  named in honor of thomas blanket (blanquette), a flemish weaver who lived in bristol, england in the xiv century, and was the first to use this material for sleeping to keep warm.
Blanks
Undecorated items or apparel; also refers to "blank" goods.
Bleach wash
The process of washing fabric or a garment with bleach to soften and distress the look of the fabric.
Blended yarns
Yarns composed of two or more different fibers.
Blotch
A term that refers to the background of a print design that has a large amount of ground showing.
Blouse
The word blouse is often utilized when referring to a women's shirt.  an old definition is as follows:  a long loose over garment that resembles a shirt or smock and is worn especially by workmen, artists, and peasants; the jacket of a uniform; a usually loose-fitting garment that covers the body from the neck to the waist and is worn especially by women
Bobbin
1a) a cylinder or spindle on which yarn or thread is wound (as in a sewing machine)  b) any of various small round devices on which threads are wound for working handmade lace.  c)  a coil of insulated wire or the reel it is wound on.  2)  a cotton cord formerly used by dressmakers for piping.
Boc
Specialized knitting technology created to enhance garment breathability and bi-modular stretch.
Bonded Fleece
Fleece produced with multiple layers that are bonded together creating a thicker and heavier weight garment.
Bonding
Permanently joining two fabrics together with a bonding agent, heat sealing.
Border
A border design usually has at least one edge that is clearly meant to be the edge of the garment- commonly used at the lower edge of skirts, and sometimes for shirts and tops or other garments also.
Bottom
A garment worn on the lower body.
Bow
A fabric defect when the weft is stretched and forms a curve rather than a right angle to the warp.
Box Pleat
A single, uniform fold in the center back of a garment to allow for more room and comfort.
Boxer shorts (boxer)
Short pants. underwear.
Bradford
Spinning  english method of spinning wool into worsted yarn. the wool is thoroughly oiled before it is combed, producing a smooth, lustrous yarn used for worsted suitings. this is distinct from the french system which is dry spun.
Breeze Knit
Garment-washed cool knit. by garment washing, the cool knit gets a softer hand and reduced shrinkage.
Brief
Short snug pants or underpants
Brilliantine
A light lustrous fabric that is similar to alpaca and is woven usually with a cotton warpand mohair or worsted filling.
Broadcloth
Closely woven fabric with very fine embedded ribs and a lustrous finish.  made in many weights, fibers, and blends.  resembles fine poplin.  (worsted and woolen broadcloths have a glossy finish).
Brocatelle
Silk, rayon, cotton, and synthetics.  jacquard - double or backed cloth.  originally supposed to be an imitation of italian tooled leather - satin or twill pattern on plain or satin ground.   it is recognized by a smooth raised figure of warp-effect, usually in a satin weave construction, on a filling effect background.  true brocatelle is a double weave made of silk and linen warp and a silk and linen filling.  present-day materials may have changed from the xiiith adn xivth century fabrics, but they still have the embossed figure in the tight, compact woven warp-effect.  while brocatelle is sometimes classed as a flat fabric, it shows patterns which stand out in "high relief" in a sort of blistered effect.
Brushed Cotton
Cotton fabric that is brushed to remove all the excess lint and fibers from the fabric, leaving an ultra soft, smooth finish.
Brushed napping
 knit or woven fabrics of wool, cotton, or synthetics.  the result is a flannel-like texture.
Brussels lace 
Any of various fine needlepoint or bobbin laces with floral designs made originally in or near brussels
Buckram (Buckram backing)
A stiff-finished heavily sized fabric of cotton or linen used for interlinings in garments, for stiffening in millinery, and in bookbinding.  softens with heat. can be shaped while warm. name from bokhara in southern russia, where it was first made.  also called crinoline book muslin or book binding. coarse-woven fabric stiffened with glue, used to stabilize items for embroidery. commonly used in caps.
Buff 
A moderate orange yellow; a light to moderate yellow.  a garment, as a uniform, made of buff leather
Bulk classing
A term used when fleece wools of different brands and descriptions, but of similar type, yield, etc., are emptied out of their containers (bales) bulked together and rebaled under another or various brands into large lines. grading and pooling of small lots of wool from a number of owners into standard lines.
Bulky-weight yarns
These yarns knit to a gauge of up to 3-1/2 stitches per inch on size 10, 10-1/2, and 11 us needles, or larger. yarns in this category can range from 500 to 1000 yards per pound. these yarns are used for heavy fabrics such as coats, blankets, and heavy bulky outdoor sweaters.  (this definition was kindly provided by karen at red meadow fiber arts)
Bull denim
A 3x1 twill weave piece dyed fabric, made from coarse yarns. weights can vary from 9 ozs/sq yard up to the standard 14 ozs/sq yard. bull denim is essentially a denim without indigo.
Bunting
A lightweight loosely woven fabric used chiefly for flags and festive decorations.
Burlap
A coarse heavy plain-woven fabric usually of jute or hemp used for bagging and wrapping and in furniture and linoleum manufacture.
Burling
In the dry finishing department of a woollen or worsted mill, it is the removal of as much objectionable matter as possible from the goods.
Burnoose
A one-piece hooded cloak worn by arabs and berbers [also, burnous]
Burnout
Usually a blended fabric (cotton/poly for instance) treated with a chemical to slightly dissolve one fiber in the cloth. the result is a sheer, lacy design often giving the fabric a vintage, worn-in feel. because of this process, each garment is unique, and similar to tie-dyed or pigment-dyed fabric, there are often variations in the design and color. examples of burnout tees are.
Burry
A term applied to wool containing certain seed pods, mainly of the medicago species. wool carrying a percentage of burr. light burr in combing wools can be removed by the comb or card in manufacture. heavy burry combing wools and any short types carrying burr or excessive vegetable matter are carbonized before carding.
Bush jacket
A long cotton jacket resembling a shirt and having four patch pockets and a belt
Bush shirt
A usually loose-fitting cotton shirt with patch pockets
Buskin
A laced boot reaching halfway or more to the knee
Bustier 
A tight-fitting often strapless top worn as a brassiere or outer garment
Butterfly collar
 a pointed collar that lies flat against the garment, but can be brought up and secured to ensure warmth.
Button
Button-makers categorized buttons by types of holes, shape, size, and color. finishers drilled two holes, four holes, or self-shank holes, or inserted a metal shank. names like fisheye, ring fisheye, french bevel, english rim and cup described the various styles in which holes were drilled. the basic shapes of buttons were disc (two-hole and four-hole), ball (half-sphere), geometric (diamond, prism, square, rectangle, and parallelogram), and realistic (animals, flowers). sizing in the button trade uses the measure ligne, the traditional english and french measure that is still used today, along with inches and millimeters. one inch is equal to 40 english ligne, 11 french ligne, and 25.5 mm. 12-18 ligne buttons were sold for trim, shirts, and children's dresses; 20-60 size for dresses, jackets and coats; shoe buttons were usually 14 ligne, and specialty buttons were usually 45-60 ligne.
Button-Through Sleeve Placket
A small placket located on the sleeve, by the cuff, which contains a single button closure.
Button-down 
A shirt with a button-down collar
Byron collar
A pointed, shirt-style collar.
Byssus
A fine probably linen cloth of ancient times.

C

C.A.D. (AutoCAD)
Computer aided design. often, the resulting printouts are referred to as cads.
CVC
Chief value cotton; used in some blends of t-shirts for a fine, smooth feel
Cabretta leather
A leather made from the skins of sheep that grow hair rather than wool, tougher than other sheepskins and used chiefly for gloves and shoes
Calendaring
Essentially an ironing process that adds sheen to the fabric by the use of heavy rollers (or calendars), pressure and steam heat.
Cami-Strap
Very narrow shoulder straps.
Camp Shirt
A men’s shirt with an open collar and patch pockets, typically meant to be worn un-tucked.
Canvas
A heavy, closely woven fabric of cotton, hemp, or flax, originally used for making tents and sails.
Cap sleeve
A very short sleeve that hangs over the shoulder but does not extend beyond the armhole on the underside, often used for ladies' fashion tees such as anvil style 1441 
Carding
The manufacturing process of drawing out and arranging the cotton fibers in a parallel fashion while removing impurities in the fibers. carding is less expensive and less labor intensive than combing cotton, but results in a slightly coarser texture. a fiber cleaning process in yarn spinning.
Carefree
Expect an easy care, machine washable fabric.
Cargo pockets
Large expandable pockets sewn to the shell with side pleats.
Casual Microfiber
100% polyester microfiber fabric that is water repellent and wind resistant.
Cationic Fabric
Undergoes a unique dyeing process involving positively-charged ions in the solution, causing the fabric's coloring to resist bleeding and fading
Cavalry Twill
A type of twill weave (pattern of the twill).
Certified Organic
Textiles that are certified organic are made from raw organic materials that originate from organic cultivation, processed using sustainable textile production methods where 100% certified organic natural fibers come from inspected, toxic free organic farming in compliance with regulations for organic production.
Chambray
A broad class of plain weave, yarn dyed, cotton or synthetic fabrics made with a colored yarn and white filling. dress fabric woven with white threads across colored threads.
Chamois twill
A dunbrooke adjective used to identify a heavily brushed twill fabric.
Chino Cotton
A coarse twilled cotton fabric used for uniforms and sometimes work or sports clothes.
Cire, nylon
Lustrous surface effect produced on the surface of a fabric.
Classic Fit
A tubular body with feminine shoulders, neckline and sleeves in ladies’ styles
Clean finished self shell
Seams are finished, not raw with no lining
Clean-finished placket
Typically the interfacings of plackets are raw or edged, which means they can look ragged or uneven, particularly on light-colored shirts. by cutting the interfacing in a rectangle, turning the edges under and fusing them in place, there is a straight placket with no raw edges. all that shows inside the shirt is the smooth edge.
ClimaCool
A registered adidas term used to describe products made of fabric that withstand wind and rain, and keep moisture off the body and in the atmosphere
Coach's jacket
Style of jacket, comparable to a basic windbreaker, with fold-over collar and slash pockets.
Coating
A finishing process in which a substance - like rubber, resin or synthetic compounds - covers the fabric on one or both sides.  polyurethane is a common coating for outerwear.  coating typically aids water-resistance.
Coil Zipper
A continuous piece that has been formed into a coil shape and sewn into a piece of fabric webbing.
Collarette
The trim around the neck of a t-shirt or sweatshirt.
Color blocking
Merchandising and/or cutting term whereby a certain type or block of colors ends up in the same place every time on the finished garment.
Color standard
The color that you are trying to match when you dye or print fabric. (prints will have multiple color standards, one for each color in the print.)
Colorfast (Colorfastness)
The ability of a fabric to withstand exposure to sunlight, dry cleaning and laundering without fading or running.  the types of fiber, dye and treatment used for setting the color determine how colorfast a fabric will be.
Colorway
A combination of colors in which a fabric/design is made. each new combination of colors is a separate colorway.
Combed Cotton
Cotton yarn that has been combed to remove short fibers and straighten or arrange longer fibers in parallel order resulting in a smooth yarn used in finer garments.  a secondary cleansing process performed to remove additional impurities from the staple fiber after carding.
Combing
A secondary cleansing process performed to remove additional impurities from the staple fibers after carding. this is a better, more refined cotton than carding
Compacting
Process that compacts the space between fabric fiber pockets. this will prevent cotton shrinkage. comprehension straps - straps which securely hold the inner contents of a bag.
Compaction
A shrinkage control technique used in fabric manufacturing
Compression molded
A solid, pre-formed molded panel that is created using compression.
Connecting Stitches
Threads that connect short distanced objects in embroidery. distance of 1/16” is the industry standard for using a connecting stitch.
Constructed
A constructed cap has buckram backing
Cool Mesh
Similar to a pique knit but with a more open texture for increased breathability. features a soft hand for better comfort.
Cool Weave
Similar to a pique knit, but with a more open texture for increased breathability. slightly larger knit than cool mesh, it has a denser feel.
Cool knit
A variation of pique that results in a different texture and surface appearance. it resembles a "waffle" pattern.
Cord Locks
A stopper or toggle on a drawcord that keeps the cord from retracting into the garment. 
Corduroy
Cut pile fabric woven with either wide or narrow wales formed by using extra filling.  back may be either plain or twill weave, the latter being better quality.
Cotton
The fibers harvested from within the seed pods of a cotton plant. these are between 1/2 and 2 inches long and can be spun into thread that are woven into cotton fabrics.
Cotton sheeting
Plain-weave cotton fabric, usually prelaundered, used for fashion sportswear. it's wrinkled to create crinkle cotton.
Course
Loops of horizontal knit fabric
Cover stitch
Background of solid embroidery.  background behind copy
Cover stitched armhole seam
Usually found in knit shirts, refers to the inside armhole seam being serged or finished.
Coverseamed
A finish in which two needles are used to create parallel rows of visible stitching. it is used around the neck, arm holes, waistband, and wrists of garments to create a cleaner, more durable finish.
Crepe
A fabric characterized by a broad range of crinkled or grained surface effect.
Crestable panels
Panels that are available for custom branding.
Crew Neck
A round collarless neck
Crew collar
A rounded, ribbed collar cut loose to the neck.
Crinkle cotton 
Wrinkled or puckered cotton obtained by cloth, construction or finishing. it is prelaundered and made from cotton finishing.
Crop top
A shirt style made to expose the midriff
Cross Stitch
Two stitches that cross to form an x.
Cross cut
Fabric knit on a pique machine, which is altered slightly to provide a unique stitch. the face of the fabric is two-toned, which gives it a dimensional, textured look and feel. the garment stitching will have a horizontal appearance rather than a vertical one.
Cross grain
This term is used for heavyweight fleece fabric. the fabric is sewn between ribs or panels on the side part of the garment for extra thickness and durability
Crown
The upper-most part of the cap of a hat that is sewn to either a hatband, brim or sweat band
Cut
The number of needles utilized per inch when knitting fabric.

D

DTG Printing (Direct To Garment)
A modern process used to print designs on fabric. a typical dtg system is very similar to an ink jet printer used in a home office.
DWR
A special finishing process to enhance longevity and effectiveness of water resistance (durable water resistant)
Dazzle
A lightweight fabric that easily allows the body to receive ventilation during physical activity. dazzle fabric is distinguished by the pattern of tiny holes in the weave of the material. often made of synthetic fibers as well as cotton/synthetic blends, the look of dazzle wear is usually somewhat sleek and shiny.
Debossed silicone
A stamped, soft silicone process versus a raised mold; this material is often used for colored bracelets
Decorative Stitching
Stitching/embroidery which serves no purpose except to enhance the items' appeal and surface interest.
Delrin zipper
A heavy nylon zipper with large teeth, often left exposed for style.
Denier
A unit of fineness for rayon, nylon, and silk fibers. the higher the denier, the finer the fiber and the softer the product. for example, 100 denier fiber is very fine, whereas 50 denier fiber is not as fine but is very strong. 
Denim
A basic or cotton or blended fabric with right- or left-hand twill constructions. the wrap is usually dyed blue with a white filing.
Digitize
The translation of a graphic such as a jpeg into the format needed by an embroidery machine to stitch on fabric. this translation is performed by a experienced digitizer usually using a computerized digitizing system.
Digitizing
Conversion of artwork into a series of commands read by an embroidery machine’s computer via a card.
Direct embroidery
The process of sewing a name or design directly to a garment.
Disk 1 Tape 
Disk containing computerized embroidery designs read by the embroidery machine’s computer.
Divot Repair Tool
A useful tool for any golfer, this item is used to replace and mend any divots created in the grass with the swing of a club
Dobby
A decorative weave, usually geometric, that is woven into the fabric. standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine
Double Knit
A fabric knitted on a circular machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (2 sets of needles) to form a ribbed cloth with a twice-knitted appearance.
Double Needle Stitched
A finish used on a sleeve or bottom hem which uses two needles to create rows of visible stitching. this process gives the garment a clean finished look and is quite durable.
Double Pleated Back Yoke
The back piece of a garment which contains two individual pleats that provide more room and comfort.
Double needle safety stitched
Seams top stitched with two needles running side by side
Double sided fleece
Fuzzy on both sides for maximum durability.
Double-Needle Stitched
A finish used on a sleeve and/or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching. it gives the garment a cleaner, more finished look and adds durability.
Double-needle
A double row of stitching at the seam.
Drapability
A fabric's ability to hang gracefully in a finished product
Draw cord
A cord or ribbon run through a hem or casing and pulled to tighten or close an opening or drawstring.
Drop Needle
A knit fabric characterized by vertical lines within the cloth. manufactured by “dropping” a needle from the knitting cylinder.
Drop seam
A seam that is cut and lays below the shoulder of the garment.
Drop tail
A design feature found in upscale products where the back of the garment is longer than the front, sometimes referred to as an "elongated" back.
Dry-Fiber (PING)
A high activity sportswear fabric that absorbs, wicks and dries faster than average golfwear.
Duck Cloth 
Tightly woven fabric that provides wind and snag resistance.
Durable Press (DP) Rating
A rating given to the fabric of a garment to describe it's wrinkle resistance.  3.0 is considered to be "wrinkle resistant".  3.5+ is considered to be "wrinkle free".
Dyed-To-Match
Describes buttons or trims that are the same color as the garment onto which they are sewn.

E

EVA molded
A type of foam with softness and flexibility that yet can be processed like other thermoplastics. the material has good barrier properties, low-temperature toughness, stress-crack resistance, hot-melt adhesive waterproof properties and resistance to uv radiation for maximum durability.
EcoSpun
A fleece outerwear fabric made from at least 50% materials reclaimed from recycled plastic soda pop bottles
Egyptian Cotton
Cultivated in egypt's nile river valley, this cotton is considered the best cotton in the world. the particular growing season gives the cotton the longest and strongest fibers, making it ideal for weaving into smooth, strong yarn. commonly used in high-end towels and linens.
Elastic
Easily stretched rubber usually prepared in cords, strings or bands.  an elastic fiber is usually made of yarns containing rubber
Emblem/patch
Embroidered design with a finished edge, stitched independent of garment.
Embroidery
Is the process of decorating fabric with a design formed by applying stitches of thread combining texture, pattern and color
End on end
A weave in which the warp yarn (the yarn running lengthwise) alternates between two colors.
Engineered Design
A motif or pattern that is purposely designed to go in one specific area of a garment, cushion, piece of furniture, or other item. for example, a button down shirt might have a dragon motif printed on one shoulder; that is an engineered design.
Enzyme Washed
A laundering process in which a catalytic substance is added to create a chemical change in the fabric resulting in a very soft finish, smoother appearing surface and reduced shrinkage.
Enzyme wash
Washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed. the solution physically degrades the surface of the cotton fiber. the appearance and hand of the garment are identical to stonewashed and acid washed garments. however, the fabric surface is not damaged to the extent of a stonewashed or acid washed garment.
Epaulet
A shoulder "strap" or collar trim that is styled with a military look.
Etched Tone Buttons
A more upscale horn tone button with an etched pattern.
Expandable collar 
 the top button of a woven shirt is attached to an elastic band hidden under the fabric. this adds some stretch when buttoning the top button for more comfort on larger necks.
Extended Tail
When the back portion of the garment is longer than the front. assists in keeping the garment tucked in during normal activity. 
Eyelets
Small holes or perforations made in a series to allow for breathability. finished with either stitching or brass grommets

F

Fabric memory
A term used for cotton fabric. when washing instructions are followed, it will always come back looking as if it were brand new.
Face
Traditionally, the side of a fabric that offers a finished or polished appearance.  the face is normally used for outward print and decoration.
Face yarn 
The exterior yarn of a fleece garment.
Feeder stripe
An 1/8" repeating stripe.
Felled Seam
Seam made by turning under or folding together and stitching the seamed materials to avoid rough edges.
Filament
A fine or thinly spun thread or fiber.
Fill Stitch 
A series of running stitches commonly used to cover large areas.
Fine Gauge Knit
Refined in texture and drape "fine" refers to the diameter of the yarns or stitches. ensures a smoother hand and fabric surface, allowing for better print.
Finish
General term for processes used in converting raw goods into finished cloth.  bleaching, mercerizing, steaming, singeing, and dyeing are typical finishing processes.
Finishing
Processes done after the embroidery is completed, including trimming loose threads, removing excess facing or backing, and pressing or steaming to remove puckers and hoop marks.
Flagging 
Up and down motion of the fabric under the needle action caused by improper hooping. results in poor registration, unsatisfactory stitch formation and birdnesting. 
Flannel
Plain or twill weave, can be fabric with a slightly napped surface.
Flat Knit 
Welt knit fabric made on a flatbed-knitting frame as distinguished from tubular knit made on a circular frame.
Fleece  
Refers to pile or napped fabric with a deep, soft, woolly-style surface.
Float 
Longer-than-normal satin stitches that lay on top of a design, or the stitches made when the needle is disconnecting from the design; later removed.
Football jersey 
A jersey shirt with a slight v-neck, stitched yoke and one-half-length to three-quarter-length sleeves.
Frame 
Holding device for inserting the hoop beneath the needle to maintain stability during the embroidery process.
French Terry 
A variety of terry fabric, identified by an uncut looped pile on one side of the fabric; the other side is flat and smooth.
Full Cut 
Refers to a garment's fit as being generous and roomy. 
Full-fashioned  
A term applied to fabrics made on a flat-knitting machine, such as hosiery, sweaters and underwear, that have been shaped by adding or reducing stitches.
Fused lining 
A lining that is fused to the two outer plies with solvent, heat and pressure. it's used to stabilize or stiffen parts of a garment, such as a pocket or collar.

G

Gabardine 
A firm hard-finish durable fabric, twilled with diagonal ribbon
Garment Dye 
When garments are cut, sewn, and then dyed it is referred to as "garment dye".
Garment Washed 
A wash process where softeners are added to finished garments to help the cotton fibers relax or bloom. the result is a fabric with a thicker appearance, reduced shrinkage and a softer hand.
Garment dyed  
Apparel dyed in garment form rather than fabric form.  this is a popular fashion treatment used by designers.
Garment wash 
Process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured to remove sizing; it also softens and pre-shrinks.
Glen plaid 
A popular scotch pattern for suiting and sportswear characterized by two checks of different sizes.
Goods 
Often used interchangeably with the word "fabric"
Greige Goods  
Gray goods unfinished fabric. the fabric has been knit or woven but has not been bleached, scoured, dyed or given a finish.
Grommets  
Metal, plastic or stitched holes creating fabric reinforcement at stress points.
Gusset 
Triangular inserts in sleeve seams to widen and strengthen.  added panel of fabric in a seam to provide action movement.

H

Hand
Quality or characteristic of fabrics that are perceived by the sense of touch; e.g. firmness, softness, fineness, drape.
Hanger appeal -
A retail term meaning very marketable or very appealing to a retail market; as in "looks appealing on the hanger"
Heat-seal label 
Tagless labels; the information displayed on a label is heat stamped or printed onto the garment to avoid an itchy attached label.
Heather 
A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. these fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (for example, black and white may be blended together to create a gray heathered yarn.) the term, heather, may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns.
Heavyweight 
Fabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard, equal to 1.60 yield. standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces (2.0 yield) or lighter.
Henley
A knit shirt with a button placket at the neckline, no collar.  copied from a shirt originally worn by rowers at henley, england.
Henley style 
Shirt featuring a banded neck and button placket; may be ribbed.
Herringbone
A chevron or zig-zag pattern, knit into fabric alternating direction row by row.
High Profile-
A cap style with a high slope structured with buckram–a stiff fabric lining. less fitted to the head.
High cotton 
Type of cotton fabric that results in a soft hand. therefore, it has little or no lint and a tighter knit, which makes for ideal screen printing.
Hollofil  
A high loft insulation made with hollow polyester fibers.  the finished product is lightweight and warm.  hollofil ii, another version, is a coated hollow polyester fiber with added drape.
Honeycomb pique 
A knit fabric that is characterized by a wider waffle-like appearance, which actually allows the wearer more comfort.
Hooping Board 
Device that aids in precise placement and uniformity in hooping subsequent garments or items for embroidery.
Horn (Horn tone) Buttons
 buttons that appear to be manufactured from natural horn.
Horn 
Horn (button) - tan/khaki swirls of light colors that resemble the cross-cut textures found in the horn of an antelope.
Houndstooth 
A medium sized broken check effect that is knit into the fabric.
Hydrophilic or Hydrophilic finish 
Hydrophilic fibers absorb water easily, often used in moisture-management styles to aid in wicking and quick evaporation of perspiration

I

Indigo dyeing 
Indigo dye is a substance taken from the indigo plant. there are many chemical imitation indigo dyes. indigo dye color can only be achieved through a process of dyeing where yarn is dipped into a dye bath and is then allowed to oxidize. the number of dips determines the depth of the indigo color-the more dips, the darker the color.
Inset/Set-In Placket
A placket that is constructed from a separate piece of fabric and sewn in separately. this placket is visible after it is sewn into the garment.
Insulation  
That which maintains warmth; the action of a garment in maintaining user warmth.
Intarsia 
Derived from italian meaning "inlay."  a flat knit fabric with patterns knitted in solid colors, so that both sides of the fabric are alike.
Interlock Knit-
A fabric that has two plys knit simultaneously to form one thicker and heavier ply. it has more natural stretch than a jersey knit, a soft hand, and the same appearance and feel on both sides.
Interlock 
A fine-gauge knit fabric produced by interlocking or interlocking stitches on a circular knit machine. similar to a jersey, except both front and back of fabric look identical. interlock is a variation of rib knit construction. the fabric is extremely soft, firm and absorbent.
Iridescent Buttons
Buttons with a lustrous, rainbow-like hue.

J

J Placket  
The shape of the placket is curved at the bottom.  the "j" refers to the shape of the placket.
Jacquard Knit
A pattern knit directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process. typically, 2 or more colors are used.  woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask and tapestry.  in knits, jacquard is typically a jersey fabric with a different and more complex needle selection.
Jacquard 
Woven-in pattern created by a special loom.  a raised design or pattern woven into the fabric as opposed to being printed on the fabric.
Jaspe pique -
Two color yarns create subtle tone variations on the surface of the fabric. this will allow exceptional embroidery surfaces.
Jersey Knit 
This fabric has a flat, smooth texture on the front and back. most t-shirts are made from jersey fabric, as are a majority of the most expensive polos. this fabric can be very light weight and soft, or a little heavier with a nice drape. in general, jersey is not great for very active wear as it tends to retain a lot of moisture (perspiration). jersey knit is particularly good for embroidery, as the flat texture provides very uniform and consistent background for applying logos. jersey is the best show case for an embroidered logo!
Jersey 
A type of fabric with a flat appearance, knit on a circular, single-knit machine; its principal distinction is that it is not a fabric with a distinct rib.
Johnny collar 
A knit, stand-up collar.
Jump stitch 
Stitch in excess of 7mm used to "jump" (cut, going from one design to another) from one portion of the design to another

K

Kasha
A light, flannel-like lining.
Kasha-lining 
A lining principally for jackets featuring cotton flannel, napped face and imitation chambray back.
Knit Fabric
Fabric made by intertwining yarn or thread in a series of connected loops.
Knits 
Fabrics constructed by interlocking a series of loops by hand or machine.  knitted fabrics tend to mold and fit easily to body shape: woven fabrics, in contrast, drape.

L

Lamborder
A flat rib knit, with specified dimensions, that is used to function as a placket and placket facing.
Lamination  
A process of binding one fabric to another by means of heat or adhesive bonding.
Lap shoulder 
Lap shoulder - an infant's shirt where the back panel or body parts overlap the front panel at the neckline where the set-in sleeves start.
Linear 
A form of measurement of fleece's weight. the higher the number, the heavier and warmer the fabric.
Lisle 
High-quality cotton yarn made by plying yarns spun from long, combed staple.
Lock Stitch 
Formed by three or four consecutive short, tight threads stitched at end of embroidery to prevent raveling.
Locker Loop 
A looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment on a hook. can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of a garment.
Locker Patch 
A semi-oval panel sewn into the inside back portion of a garment, just under the collar seam, to reinforce the garment and minimize stretching when hung on a hook. the patch also allows for the garment tag or label to be sewn below the neckline to help prevent irritation. 
Logo 
An artistic interpretation of a company's sign or symbol. these figures can be copyrighted or trademarked. permission is needed for duplication.
Low Profile 
A cap style with a low slope that is more closely fitted to the head. can be either structured or unstructured.
Lycra  
An elastomeric fiber that is blended with other fibers.  can stretch 500 percent without breaking.  holds dyes well and is resistant to heat.  trademark owned by du pont.

M

MAG pockets 
Magnetic access pockets.
Marbled 
A texture that involves a body color with contrasting highlight flecks on the surface. these flecks give the garment a heather-like appearance.
Matte Taslan
See taslan but with a dull finish.
Meistergram  
An embroidery machine, usually a single-head, used by small retail shops to perform monograms and simple stock design on fabrics.
Melange
A mix of different colors of yarns knit together to create a heathered effect.
Mercerization 
A process that eliminates all of the small "hairs" of yarn, which adds to its luster. this yarn is then additionally run through a caustic solution, which further smoothes and adds gloss to the yarn surface by burning off additional fabric hairs.
Mercerized  
A treatment of fine cotton yarn or fabric that increases shine, luster and strength.  its ability to absorb dyes produces vibrant colors.
Mesh 
Similar to a pique knit, but with a more open texture for increased breathability. larger knit than cool weave.
Micro Cord
A very fine wale cord.
Micro Fleece
A high density, anti-pilling fleece made of knit micro-fibers that are brushed less than a regular fleece garment. it has a high capacity for warmth without the weight.
Micro Suede 
Usually a nylon/polyester blended yarn that is spun into a microfiber like fabric.  it is then brushed twice to achieve the suede touch.  the first brushing is applied before dyeing and the second brushing is considered a "suede" process which actually is brushed with pins.  then the fabric is dyed and sheared which gives the final suede look and touch.
Micro-Stripe 
An ultra-fine stripe that is knit into the fabric.
Microfiber
This fabric is tightly woven from a very fine poly thread and has a sueded finish for a luxurious, soft feel. microfiber fabric is naturally water repellent due to its construction process and when specially treated, can also be waterproof.
Mid Profile 
A cap with a slope height in between that of a high profile and low profile. it is most often structured with buckram.
Mini-grid
Small square pattern created by yarn dyed thread.
Mock turtleneck 
A shortened version of the turtleneck where the neck of the garment does not fold over.
Moisture wicking 
Moisture-wicking fabric actually draws moisture from perspiration away from the skin to the surface of the garment where it can evaporate more quickly and easily. moisture-wicking styles, such as the gildan performance® and dryblend® lines, are ideal not just for athletes and teams, but also for general wear because they help keep the wearers feeling fresh and dry.
Monogram 
Embroidered design composed of one or more letters, usually one’s initials.
Mother of Pearl Logo Buttons
Buttons made from mother of pearl, with a logo inscribed on them.
Muscle Tee 
A casual shirt similar to a t-shirt but without sleeves, ostensibly worn to show off a muscular physique.

N

Nail Head Design 
A jacquard knitting pattern in which the jacquard forms a design similar to small nail heads.
Nailhead woven 
Consists of a solid background and color and little pinheads' (or small nailheads) of fabric spaced at regular (and very small) intervals. the effect of this pattern is that the background color tends to overshadow the nailhead pattern.
Nappa  
A soft surface on fabric or leather.
Nap  
A downy surface given to a cloth when part of the fibers are raised from the basic structure and brushed.
Neck tape  
Protective band of tape sewn over the seam between the shell and the collar for a more comfortable feel to the garment.
Needle out
Term which refers to the pattern made when a stitching needle is removed from the knitting process.
Non-iron
Finish allows garment to stay smooth and crisp without ironing throughout the day. collars and cuffs stay flat and flawless.
Non-woven fabrics 
Materials that are produced by interlocking or bonding fabrics together.
NuBlend fleece 
A three-end fleece made of 50% cotton and 50% polyester with an anti-pilling surface.
Nylon oxford weave  
A coarse, plain weave cloth.
Nylon zipper
Sturdy cord zipper that is self-lubricating.

O

Ombre
A graduated or shaded effect of color or texture used in a stripe motif.
One-ply yarn 
One strand of thread is used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.
One-way 
The motifs only point in one direction. (usually facing up.) typically, one way designs will feature designs that look better right side up than they do upside-down, such as trees, houses, characters, etc.
Open Collar
A type of collar that does not button down.
Open-End Spinning
A technique to create yarn using a combing roll and rotor.
Open-end yarn 
A process that eliminates some manufacturing steps needed for ring-spun yarn. this cost-saving process is passed on to the garments produced.
Optical Brightener
A fabric brightening additive.
Ottoman Knit
Also known as "cool knit" or "cool weave".  this fabric has a small box-like pattern and certain wicking properties to keep moisture away from the skin.
Ounces per sq. yd 
A measurement of fabric weight, a weight that customers usually ask for when making a comparison to competitive brands.
Overdyed 
A process in which yarn dyed fabrics or piece dyed garments are put through an additional dye color to create unique colors.
Oxford weave 
A group of cotton or man-made fabrics made with a modified plain weave or basket weave.  mainly used as shirting material.
Oxford 
A type of fabric where the fibers are either cotton or blended man-made fibers.

P

PET recycled polyester
P.e.t. (polyethylene terephthalate) refers to a specific type of plastic often used in plastic bottles. in a 7-step process, bottles are reclaimed and made into polyester fabric. this fabric is used, for instance, in anvil's style 450.
PU construction 
A synthetic split leather with a layer of polyurethane applied to the surface and then embossed.
PVC 
A polyurethane coating that is added to make garments water resistant. 
Patch pocket  
A pocket added to a garment usually made of self material and without pleats of lining, like a shirt pocket.
Peach finish 
A soft hand (feel) usually obtained by sanding the fabric lightly; it can be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.
Peach wash finish  
A "peach fuzz" like finish applied to washed poplin with a light nap for a soft, supple feel.
Pearlized Buttons 
Buttons that have a pearl-colored hue.
Performance trio
Combined functional features of stretch and recovery, moisture management and antimicrobial.
Peruvian Pima Cotton
Peruvian pima cotton is often referred to as the "cashmere of cotton" the softest, smoothest, "silkiest" fabric you can wear. shrinkage standard for peruvian pima fabrics is a maximum of 5 x 5 if the garment is washed following directions on the label
Pewter Buttons
Buttons that have a dull, metallic hue.
Piece Dye 
When the entire roll of fabric is dyed, it's referred to as "piece dye". the fabric is dyed after knitting or weaving.
Piece dying 
Fabrics that are dyed solid colors after they have been woven or knitted, but before they are sewn into a garment.
Pigment dyeing 
A class of dye used on cotton or poly/cotton. neon or fluorescent colors are done with pigments. dyers also do a distressed look using pigments. pigments have the least degree of fastness of all the dyes, but create the brightest colors. pigment dyes will typically stay in the pastel range unless it's neon. you cannot deepen color with a pigment.
Pigment dye  
A type of dye used to create a distressed or washed look. washed down colors that will continue to soften and age with washing.  great for outdoor and casual looks.
Pile fabric 
Fabric with cut fibers or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface.  usually has a plush feel (i.e., bath towel, velvet).
Pill Free® 
A process developed by lee® to help prevent pilling on fleece garments.
Pill resistant 
The degree by which fabric is able to endure loss of appearance as a result of wear, abrasion, continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric.
Pima
Peruvian pima cotton is one of the world's finest natural fibers grown and harvested in the foothills of the andes.  it is prized for its extraordinary softness and durability.
Pima cotton
High-quality yarn made by plying yarns spun from long combed staple.
Pinnies 
Sleeveless jerseys, often used in soccer or lacrosse practice. pinnies are often two-color, reversible vests to help a practicing team know who the opposing players are.
Pinpoint Oxford
A lightweight, soft, cotton-like fabric with small, 2x1 basket (rib) weave repeats. it is of high quality, with a very smooth surface often used for shirts.
Piping 
A narrow tube of fabric, sometimes enclosing a cord, used for trimming seams and edges as an added fashion detail.
Pique Knit 
Pronounced p-k, this is the fabric that is most associated with the original lacoste alligator polo shirt. also sometimes called mesh, pique is characterized by a textured fabric face with lots of tiny holes and a fabric back that is smooth. the construction is designed to pull moisture from the skin and wick it into the air, keeping the fabric, and the wearer, relatively dry and cool. before the days of high tech and high performance polyester yarns, pique was the original performance fabric. in the 1920s pique fabrics were an innovation that was used in the first use-specific athletic wear, particularly in the original tennis and polo shirts, as athletes began to move away from participating in sports in long sleeve button down shirts that covered up all skin! the extraordinary comfort of this fabric soon popularized it for less serious athletes, and the rest, as they say, is history! please note that due to the surface texture of pique, embroidery can sometimes be a bit of a challenge on this fabric, particularly small letters or details.
Pique 
A knit fabric that is characterized by its waffle-like appearance.
Placket 
The construction that forms the opening in the front of the shirt, allowing the wearer to put it on and take it off with ease.
Plaid
A design with sets of intersecting stripes.
Plain weave 
Simplest, most common of all basic weaves. the surface provides a smooth surface for printing.
Plastisol 
A printing ink most commonly used on garments that contain a plasticizer and resin and will not air dry or air cure.
Plated 
Fabric produced from two yarns of different colors, characters or qualities. used in knitted fabric with one kind of yarn on the face of the fabric and another on the back of the fabric.
Ply yarn
A yarn formed by twisting together one or more single yarns or strands in one single operation.
Ply  
The number of single yarns twisted together to form ply yarn; also the number of ply yarns twisted together to form cord.  by twisting two or more yarns together, a stronger single yarn is created.
Pointelle 
Pointelle is a kind of drop needle fabric.  it is constructed to control the degree of unlooping of certain stitches and to provide for opening needles latches when necessary.
Polar fleece 
Knitted using 100% fine denier polyester yarns. the pile is napped on the front and back to promote a very soft hand with exceptional loft. this is a fine denier knit that also allows the fabric to dry quickly.
Poly viscose 
A synthetic material similar to rayon, made of 65% polyester/35% viscose that creates a lightweight, soft hand fabric that's particularly popular in retail markets.
Poly-filled 
A warm polyester lining found in the body or sleeves of outerwear garments. it has more loft than a regular nylon lining.
Polyester
A wrinkle resistant fabric of man-made filament fibers.
Polynosic  
Polynosic is a type of microfiber that is a blend of advanced polyester and rayon fibers.  characteristics include luxurious soft touch with a drapeable hand.
Popcorn Pique (PING) 
Alternating rows of 2 different pique knits; one knit is a baby pique, while the other is a larger pique that resembles small circles knit closely together.
Poplin 
A tightly woven, durable, medium weight cotton or cotton blend fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave which creates a slight ridge effect. 
Powder dyeing 
Process that allows polyester to blend with cotton to give a garment a dyed appearance. powder dyed garments ensure consistent color, wash after wash.
Pre-Shrunk
This term refers to a manufacturing process whereby the fabric is compressed before a garment is sewn from it.  the fabric decompresses during washing, compensating for any natural shrinkage.  "pre-shrunk" does not mean "pre-washed".
Princess Darts
A tapered tuck sewn from the bottom hem to the arm hole to adjust the fit of a garment.
Princess Seam Detailing
Seams found in the front or back of a garment that create a tailored silhouette.
PrintPro 
Fleece fabric construction with a two-end yarn system that allows for an increase in the amount of stitches per square yard.
Printed fabric
A fabric with a pattern printed on it with an ink or dye.
Puckering 
Result of fabric being gathered by the stitches. possible causes include loose hooping, lack of or improper backing, incorrect tension or a dull needle.
Puff Embroidery 
Stitching a dense motif over embroidery/craft foam to create a three-dimensional effect.

Q

Quarter turned 
An additional manufacturing process where the mill rotates 1/4 of a turn to put a crease on the side of the product rather then the front of the product.
Quick-Dry 
A high activity sportswear fabric that absorbs, wicks and dries faster than average golf-wear.

R

R-Tek™ Fleece
100% polyester fleece with an anti-pill finish which prevents the formation of little balls on the surface of the fabric.
Racerback 
Denoting an article of clothing with a t-shaped back behind the shoulder blades to allow ease of movement in sports.
Raglan Sleeves
A type of sleeve sewn in with seams slanting outward from neck to underarm.  the sleeve continues in one piece to the collar so there are no seams at the shoulder allowing for ease of movement.
Raglan 
A raglan sleeve is stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck; it makes for ease of arm movement.
Ramie 
A strong, staple fiber of cellulose yielded by the inner bark of the ramie plant. it's often used as a less expensive substitute for linen or cotton, and is usually blended with cotton, flax or silk.
Rapid Dry
A fabric designed with a unique weave to wick away moisture from the body.
Reactive dye 
Special dye used on a garment which produces, when the label's wash instructions are followed, a more set-in color tone. dyestuffs that form chemical bonds with cotton fibers.
Reactive printed fabric  
A fabric printed with a reactive dye that promotes colorfastness.
Recovery  
The capacity of a fabric to return to its original dimensions after being stretched out of shape.
Reinforced Placket
Stitching in the shape of a rectangle at the bottom of a placket, for reinforcement.
Resin treatment 
The addition of thermosetting resins applied in the finishing process, used to control the shrinkage of a fabric and add durable press characteristics.
Resizing 
The ability to scale a design to different sizes. may cause density problems unless stitch count can be altered.
Resort Cuff
Also known in the industry as a "logo cuff", describes a cuff that has a small blank space in the pattern to provide a spot for embroidering.
Reverse Placket 
The part of a shirt or jacket where the garment fastens together which is reversed for women’s garments.
Reverse weave 
A popular fabric in athletic sweatshirts; for example, some sweatshirts are made with the grain of the fabric running sideways instead of vertically, and includes side panels to help maintain its shape and fight shrinking
Rib Knit 
A textured knit that has the appearance of vertical lines. it is highly elastic and retains "memory". 
Rib 
A stretchy fabric normally used for trim. this stitch is formed by two sets of needles at right angles to each other. the face of the fabric appears to be the same as the backside.
Ring Spun Yarn
Yarn made by continuously twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. the twisting makes the short hairs of cotton stand out, resulting in a stronger yarn with a significantly softer hand.  found in more expensive polos and tees.
Ringer
A t-shirt with collar and sleeve cuffs of a different color than the body of the shirt.
Ringer tee 
A shirt, usually white bodied, featuring ribbed crew neck and sleeve bands in a contrasting color.
Ripstop nylon  
Nylon taffeta with double yarns creating the box pattern to provide extra strength and resistance to tearing.
Running Stitch
A stitch that is spaced equally, with the underside stitching being half the length of the external side. 

S

Sandwashed 
A washing process in which the fabric is washed with very fine lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls resulting in a softer fabric with a relaxed look and reduced shrinkage.
Sandwich hat 
A hat where there is contrasting trim between the upper and lower part of the visor.
Satin Stitch 
Formed by closely arranged zigzag stitches. can be stitched at any angle and with varying lengths.
Scoop neck 
A rounded neck, larger than a crewneck, but smaller than a boatneck.
Scour 
A finishing process that cleans the fabric and removes impurities. the exact process varies for different fibers, but typically involves a detergent and possibly other solvents as well. when scouring is performed on un-dyed fabric, it usually results in fabric of a natural off-white color. in the true sense of the word, scour refers to the finishing process but the word "scour" may also be used by some people to describe the resulting natural color.
Sculpted Hem
A hem that is softly rounded for fashion detail.
Seam sealing  
A process in which the stitch line of a garment is made leak proof by the application of seam tape or seam-sealing glue.
Seamless collar 
A collar that is knit in a circle and is set in circular. there are no joining seams on the collar, found in better-made t-shirts.
Self-fabric Collar 
A collar that is constructed from the same material as the body of the garment. 
Self-fabric Sweatband 
Refers to headwear where the sweatband is constructed with the same fabric as the crown. 
Serge Stitch 
An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of the fabric to prevent unraveling.
Set-in sleeve  
Sleeves constructed to run from the shoulder to the cuff.
Sheared 
Refers to the towel's finish. a sheared surface is created clipping the loops on one side of the towel. sheared terry is often referred to as having a velour finish. the shearing process creates a plush and smooth finish, which is great for printing or embroidery. the weight of the fabric has a big impact on the overall appearance of the shear. a heavier weight fabric enhances the velour appearance because there is more material to shear.
Shearling 
Traditionally a sheepskin shorn close for a uniform length of wool fibers; a synthetic production of similar fabric for added moisture-wicking properties for year-round comfort.
Sheering 
The minimal gathering where the fabric meets, creating a flowy, draping quality.
Sheeting 
A plain-weave cotton fabric usually made of carded yarns.
Sherpa 
A knitted terry fabric that has been brushed and washed to raise the fibers for a fluffy, plush feel. the thick terry loops stay soft and absorbent over time.
Shirttail
A scoop in the front and/or back of a shirt that is longer than the sides.
Shoddy 
Clippings of extra fabric from the production of tees is gathered, sorted by color, then processed into a pulpy material called shoddy. this material is then respun into yarn and used to create recycled apparel.
Side Vents Slits 
Found at the bottom of side seams. they are fashion details that allow for comfort and ease of movement.
Side seams 
Seams that join the front and back together. this feature is not found on t-shirts and some placket shirts.
Silicone washed
A process of washing using silicones that increase softness.
Silk
Known for being one of the finest textiles because it is strong, soft, absorbent, and has a brilliant sheen. it is the only natural fiber to come in a filament form from a silk worm.
Single-needle 
A stitch, requiring a single needle and thread, characterized by its straight-line pathway. a single-needle shoulder seam has been finished with a visible row of stitching, single needle, for additional reinforcement and fashion.
Singles
A term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn; the smaller the number, the thicker the yarn.  usually expressed as "16/1" or "18/1".
Slash Pockets 
A pocket that has to be entered through a slash on the outside of the garment. the pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the slash. 
Slub yarn 
When "slub" yarn is spun it forms intermittent lumps in the yarn. the lumps, called "slubs," appear thicker than the surrounding yarn when it is knit into fabric. it gives a burnout like appearance without the transparency and easier printability.
Snag Resistant 
A fabric or fiber that is typically not susceptible to the formation of a small loop or hole caused by the tearing or catching of a sharp object; reduced tendency to fray.
Solera polyester 
Polyester derived from corn, an eco-friendly material
Sonic weld logos 
A type of logo treatment, where the graphic is applied without the use of stitches. a direct injection of material is applied to the fabric to create the logo.
Space dye  
A yarn dyeing process of which one strand received one color at irregular intervals.  produces an effect of unorganization.
Spandasol 
An additive placed in printing ink to allow the dried ink design to stretch with the fabric.
Specialty Fill 
Fill stitch capability that produces a design in relief.
Specialty Threads 
Threads designed for effects such as shine, glitter, iridescence or thickness. the threads often are made from synthetic materials including rayon, mercerized cotton, metallics and textured nylon.
Sponge Fleece 
A type of fleece that has a uniquely soft and spongy feel
Sport silk
Name given to modal rayon/polyester fabrication to exemplify its wash and wear capabilities.
SportFleece 
A dunbrooke term used to identify anti-pill polyester fleece.
Stain Release 
Finishes that provide fabrics with a special quality that enables stains that have been ground in to clothing (such as oil, dirt, and others) to be easily washed out when laundered. this same feature also displays a quality to resist oily substances from attaching to surface areas.
Stain Resistant 
A finish on fabric surface that repels water and certain oils. the liquid beads on the surface of the fabric instead of getting absorbed, thus preventing a stain.
Stand-up collar/mandarin 
A collar with a short height that does not lie against the garment.
Standard Athletic Team Colors 
Standards for all primary team colors to better control uniform standards; used to ensure consistency across product lines
Staple 
The actual length of a cotton fiber.
Stitch count 
Accumulated total of stitches required to complete and embroidery design.
Stonewash 
A finishing process that creates a distressed appearance, including a softer texture, puckering at the seams and slight wrinkling. garments are tumbled together with stones (usually pumice stones) in larger washers. this process is usually applied to indigo-dyed denim garments. different sizes of stones can be used and length of washing time can be varied to achieve different effects.
Storm Flap 
A strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of an outerwear garment to protect against wind and moisture.
Strikeoff 
A small amount of yardage printed in order to try out a new print or colorway- frequently 5 -10 yards of fabric.
Stripe 
A design based on bands of alternating colors or multiple bands of different colors. the bands all go in the same direction. the design can also be based on motifs that go in the same direction, or can have motifs in addition to the bands.
Structured 
A cap style with a lined front consisting of buckram, a stiff fabric, that controls the slope of the cap.
Sublimation transfer 
Method of subliming a dye pattern, through the use of heat, onto polyester fabric from a paper carrier.
Sueded Cotton 
A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
Sueded Nylon 
See sueded cotton.
Sueded fleece 
A very smooth and luxurious fleece that is made with an 80/20 cotton and polyester blend; a unique finishing process wherein the fabric is gently "sanded," which causes the fleece to become very soft.
Supplex 
A du pont trademarked fabric made of nylon fibers available in a side range of finished - it is durable, lightweight, soil-resistant. colorfast, quick-drying and breathable.

T

T-weave dobby
A type of woven fabric that contains a simple t-shape pattern which is created in the weaving process.
TPR rubber 
A specific form of rubber used on logos.
Taffetta  
Basic plain weave that is crisp and smooth on both sides, usually with a sheen.  warp and filling approximately of the same count.  may be plain, printed, striped, checked, plaid, or antique with uneven threads.
Tailored Fit-
A more form-fitting style
Taped Seams
A strip of fabric sewn to the seam of a garment to prevent distortion. in outerwear, taped seams aid in waterproofing. increased comfort and durability for the wearer.
Tape  
Originally, the item that contained the programming for computer controlled embroidery machines. same as embroidery pattern.
Taping 
A design feature whereby a piece of fabric is used to cleanly cover a seam. the term is used when referring to shoulder-to-shoulder taping.
Taslan 
100% nylon fabrication with a water-resistant coating that has been woven as a twill and washed to provide a soft hand.
Teflon coating  
Du pont trademarked water and stain repellent coating while remaining breathable.
Teklon 
A rugged, stronger taslan nylon that is water repellent. 
TempControl Technology 
Unique mix of technology at fiber level helps stay cool or warm as needed by evaporating moisture faster and enhancing the drying rate.
Tencel
A fabric made from the fiber found in wood pulp which is processed into a silk-like, delicate fabric.
Tension 
Thread tautness.
Terra-Tek™ 
A durable and water repellent taslan with a matte finish.
Terrain cloth 
A dunbrooke adjective used to identify a very rugged, durable nylon.
Terry Velour
A type of material with uncut loops on both sides. it has a soft, plush feel and is water absorbent - typically found in better quality towels and robes.
Texturing  
To achieve a matte, cotton-like texture, a jet of air is blown on a fiber to give it a rough, non-reflective surface.  textured fibers offer greater bulk and airiness to a fabric without increasing its weight.
Thread 
Fine cord of natural or synthetic twisted fiber used for stitching. machine embroidery threads come in rayon (high sheen), cotton (duller finish), polyester (strong and colorfast), metallics (synthetic core wrapped with metal foil or thin slivers of metal foil) and acrylic (sheen similar to rayon).
Three-End Fleece
Face, tie-in and backing yarns combined to form a fleece fabric.
Tipping
The embellishment of a garment by adding some type of trim to the edges of cuffs, plackets, pockets or hems for decoration.
Top Stitching
A design feature, both decorative and functional, that is an additional means of securing fabric plies whereby the original seam is folded under and sewn down.
Topping 
Material hooped or placed on top of fabric to hold the embroidery stitches above it. 
Triblend
A fabric made from 3 types of material (e.g. cotton, polyester, rayon)
Tricot Lining 
A very lightweight nylon lining often used in shorts. 
Tricot 
French for warp-knitted fabric. tricots are flat knitted with fine ribs on the face (lengthwise) and ribs on the back (widthwise).
Triple-Needle Stitched 
See double-needle stitched but with three stitches. 
Tubular Collar
Collar which is knit in a tube form so it has no seams.
Tubular knit 
A golf shirt style with no side seams. the bottom is rounded all around.
Tuck Stitch
Refers to the look of the knit where some stitches are actually under the other stitches. gives the shirt a waffle-weave type texture and look.
Tuck-In Tails 
A shirt constructed so the back hem is longer than the front. this aids in keeping the shirt tucked-in during strenuous activities.
Twelve-head  
An embroidery machine having twelve "heads" or stations.  each contains needles with the capability to sew multiple thread colors at the same time.  this machine can embroider 12 garments at one time.
Twill Tape Placket Lining 
Twill tape is attached to the inside of the placket for a fashion effect. 
Twill  
A fabric whose weave is made up of 2 or 3 warp yarns or threads to every one weft. weave with diagonal ribs and large number of variations. diagonals may be set at sharp or blunt angles, may be embedded or raised. important types are flannels, serges, gabardines, and surahs.
Two-ply yarn 
Two strands of thread are used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

U

Ultra Cool 
A fabric that is designed to wick away moisture from the body.
Unconstructed 
An unconstructed cap has a relaxed fit without backing. it fits closely to the wearer's head.
Underarm Grommets 
Small holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation.
Underarm Gussets 
Small holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation. 
Underlayer
Random stitches sewn to under-cover stitches and lettering to stabilize fabric and depth.
Unstructured 
A low profile cap style with a natural low sloping crown. no buckram has been added to the crown. 
Urethane coated  
A thin layer of polyurethane is sprayed onto backside of fabric to waterproof, yet accommodates silkening.

V

V Patch 
A section of material in a v shape that is sewn onto a garment directly under the collarette. can provide support against stretching the neck opening and is also a style component.
Velcro  
Closure material.  consists of fabric with small hooks that stick to a corresponding fabric of small loops.
Vents, Front & Back
Allow for breathability and may aid in ease of decoration, allowing the garment to be hooped and embroidered with no show-through on the inside of the garment. some vents are tacked down and are for fashion purposes only.
Vertical Princess Pleats
Vertical seams, rising from the hem, which are found in the front or back of a garment that create a tailored silhouette.
Viscose fabric 
Fabric created by combining natural and manmade components. the most common textile that falls under this description is rayon. silky in appearance and to the touch, viscose material tends to breathe the same way as cotton fabrics.

W

Waffle Weave/Knit
A waffle, or square pattern, knit or woven into a garment. 
Warp  
Lengthwise yarns found in all woven fabrics.  the warp is stronger and denser than the weft (crosswise) yarns.
Washer Nylon
A nylon garment treated with a special finish to produce a crinkled effect.
Water repellency 
The ability to resist penetration by water. not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.
Water resistant 
A treatment to fabric that actually allows water to "bead" and fall off a garment.
Waterproof/breathable 
Ability to keep water from penetrating but permits water vapor to pass through. there are over 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproofness and water vapor permeability.
Waterproofness 
The ability of fabric to withstand penetration by water. conventional waterproof fabrics are generally coated with chemicals or laminated with a film that closes the pores in fabric. (see waterproof/breathable).
Waterproof  
A fabric that withstands penetration by water.  waterproof fabrics are generally coated with chemicals or laminated with a film that closes the pores.
Weather resistant 
A loose term referring primarily to a fabric's wind-resistant and water-repellent properties. water-resistant fabrics are those that resist the penetration of water. the greater the force of impact as the water hits the fabric surface, the greater the likelihood that it will penetrate the fabric.
Weathered Twill
A special dye process resulting in a softer fabric with a weathered appearance that will continue to enhance with each wash.
Weft  
The horizontal (crosswise) threads that intersect the warp (lengthwise) threads in a woven fabric.
Weight 
The weight of fabrics is expresses in terms of ounces per square yard of fabric. generally speaking the average weight of apparel used for embroidery is between 5 and 8 ounces, however this can and does vary depending on the fabric.
Welt Collar and/or Cuffs 
A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeve garments. 
Welt cuffs 
Cuffs on short sleeve garments formed from a single ply of ribbed fabric with a finished edge. fabric for welt cuffs is knit in a bolder stitch construction than that of standard 1 x 1 ribs.
Welt  
A welt is a pocket opening treatment.  the welt is a cut and sewn piece of fabric that is used to finish the pocket opening.
Wicking  
Movement of moisture within a fabric by capillary action, usually along the filament surface, to where it can evaporate quickly.
Window pane 
A checkered, plaid like pattern that is characterized by having vertical and horizontal lines that intersect, creating the appearance of a window pane.
Windproof  
The ability of a fabric to shut out wind or air.
Wood Tone Buttons 
Buttons that simulate a wood appearance.
Woven 
Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other.
Wrinkle-free 
The basic process for imparting the wrinkle free finish into fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension, scouring to remove any residual chemicals, and final drying. the application and curing of wrinkle-free may occur before or after the garments are produced. "precured wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been manufactured. because the "postcure wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured and because the "postcure wrinkle-free" process is set into the final, pressed garment, it is more popular.

Y

Yarn Dye 
The yarn is dyed prior to weaving or knitting. when the yarn is dyed and then after dyeing it is knit or woven, the resulting product can be referred to as a "yarn dye". yarn dye stripes and yarn dye plaids are typical.
Yarn Size
A gauge of yarn weight
Yarn dyed  
A fabric such as plaid, check or strip where the color is in the dyed threads or yarns before weaving or knitting cloth, as opposed to the color being printed on the fabric after being woven.
Yoke Back  
The piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. this allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.
Yoke 
Contoured portion of a garment, usually at the shoulder or hip.

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